Student engagement is the foundation for the framework for teaching - all the other pieces support this component. However, engagement is not seeing students completing tasks assigned by the teacher, rather it is how the teacher challenges the students to promote deep learning through rigorous lessons. It involves students taking an active role in their own learning through active participation and making genuine contributions to the overall effort. It should be 'minds-on' with active construction of understanding. "School, in other words, is not a spectator sport."